As one kind of biomass, antibiotic residue is classified as hazardous waste. However, because it is rich in organic matter and bacterial protein, its calorific value is equivalent to that of low rank coal, it is considered as a good biomass resource. In this paper,the hydrothermal liquefaction(HTL) of bacterial residue into bio-oil was investigated. The retention time of the experiment is 30-240 min at 220-300 ℃.The results showed that the maximum yield of bio-oil was 28.01% at 260 ℃ for 135 min.Catalyzed by six kinds of catalysts(HCOOH、CH3COOH、K2CO3、Na2CO3、NaOH and KOH),the highest yield of bio-oil was Na2CO3 (36.06%) and NaOH(36.31%).The amount of nitrogen-containing compounds in alkali catalyzed bio-oil was 41.16% - 49.74%, while that in acid catalyzed bio-oil is 57.62% - 59.32%.By adjusting the addition amount of catalyst Na2CO3 and NaOH, it was found that,the content of hydrocarbons and their derivatives in the bio-oil produced by the two catalysts was relatively low. When the dosage was 8%, the removal of nitrogen was the best. When the content was 10%, the removal effect of oxygen was the best.The content of oxygen-containing compounds in the bio-oil components produced by Na2CO3 and NaOH was 32.12% and 29.02% respectively and the Higher Heating Value(HHV) of bio-oil was the largest (33.3220 MJ·kg -1and 34.7320 MJ·kg -1).