In order to provide parameters for the industrial test of the rotary kiln, based on the best result of the small-scale test, a pilot-scale experiment on iron recovery and dephosphorization from high-phosphorus oolitic iron ore was investigated using coal-based direct reduction, followed by magnetic separation. The results show that Under the optimum conditions, the grade and recovery of iron and phosphorus content in the powdery reduced iron concentrate were 94.17%, 77.47% and 0.08%, respectively. Limestone dosage of 28%, anthracite dosage of 16%, reduction temperature of 1300°C and reduction time of 3h are recommended as initial conditions for the industrial test of rotary kiln. The mechanisms of anthracite were investigated by XRD and SEM-EDS, it showed that with the increase of anthracite dosage, the reduction of wustite and pleonastel and the growth of iron particles are promoted, thereby improving the recovery effect of iron, thereby improving the iron recovery effect. However, too much anthracite will enhancing the reducing atmosphere and its ash content will consume limestone, causing the Fe3PO7 and apatite to be reduced to elemental phosphorus into the iron particles.