Aiming at the core problem that the interfacial debonding between the fiber and the matrix determines energy absorption, a series of standard adhesion parameters were adopted to adjust the interfacial adhesion force of composite plates, and the interfacial delamination process was simulated through the interfacial adhesion behavior and damage parameters. At the same time, through utilizing ABAQUS/Explicit, this paper established high-speed impact damage analysis model towards ceramic/fiber composite bulletproof plate. Based on the analysis of initial velocity and residual velocity of projectile, we studied the relationship between the structural components of the composite bulletproof plate, fiber performances, laminated layer structures and the resistance to penetration. Combined with Von-mises stress nephogram and matrix damage nephogram, the stress and damage forms of composite bulletproof plate were discussed. Finally, the accuracy of the model was verified by ballistic impact experiments. The experimental results showed that the bulletproof plate composed of 13mm SiC ceramic, 5mm carbon fiber composite and 17mm UHMWPE composite could effectively prevent the penetration of projectile, and it exerted obvious effects on the absorption of kinetic energy of projectile and the attenuation of projectile velocity.