The proposed Gaoloushan Tunnel is a control project to Longnan City and Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan Province. With the characteristics of "three high and one large", the project is a typical representative of deep buried long highway tunnel under complex geological conditions. In this dissertation, two types of rockburst in the field are taken as the research objects. By impacting rockburst experimental system and setting different stress paths, the whole process of rockburst test was analyzed first, and then the quality, scale distribution, shape and fractal dimension of slab buckling rockburst test fragments (rockburst fragments 1), impact rockburst test fragments (rockburst fragments 2) and unknown types of rockburst fragments (rockburst fragments 3) collected in the field are compared. On this basis, the image change process of the rockburst test was combined to deepen the understanding of the causes of different types of rockburst fragments and the rockburst mechanism. The results show that:(1) slab buckling rockburst and impact rockburst type rock burst are difference in damage dominant mechanism, one for the tension damage dominant, the other for tension-shear damage dominant.(2) Rockburst fragments 1 is dominated by medium-grained slate-like fragments , which is more easily broken in the length direction and has a much larger mass than rockburst fragments 2, which is closely related to the incubation mechanism of slab buckling rockburst with slabbing failure structure formed by vertical stress concentration.(3) Due to the intervention of dynamic load, rockburst fragments 2 is obviously sheared, so it is easier and more broken in the thickness direction, forming fragments dominated by coarse-grained flake fragments , which may be more harmful due to its large mass, large volume and long ejection distance in on-site rockburst.(4) Through the above comparison and analysis, it can be determined that the rockburst fragments 3 is impact rockburst, and the flaky and "V" shaped characteristic fragments is the unique fragments type of this type of rockburst.