Prediction and prevention of rock burst in project is difficult because of its paroxysm and sudden destructiveness. Determining how to predict the time, place, and intensity of rock burst is one of the main engineering problems that must be solved via geotechnical engineering. Increasing number of experts from the field of underground mining and construction are applying new monitoring techniques and methods to study rock burst for its effective prediction. In the model experiment, the entire process of structuretype rock burst was remotely monitored via the laser Doppler vibrometer. Based on the dynamic theory and energy conservation law; the natural vibration frequency was used to analyze the elastic coefficient of the shear plane. The experimental results show that the incompatible weakness of structural plane is a necessary condition for the occurrence of rock burst, and the spatiotemporal difference of the structural plane strength is the main factor that determines the immediate or the time-delayed rock burst. Slow weakening of the structure causes time-delayed rock burst, whereas rapid weakening causes immediate rock burst. During the whole process of rock burst, the weakening rate of rock mass structure is determined using the natural vibration frequency, and the dissipated energy of the structure occupies merely 0.06% of the rock elastic energy. Thus, most of the elastic energy is released in the form of kinetic energy, and the rock is ejected with high velocity. Furthermore, the incompatible weakening characteristics of rock burst structural planes can be analyzed using the analysis of the frequency decline rate. Therefore, the new monitoring index of dynamic characteristics such as natural vibration frequency improves the understanding of evolution characteristics of rock burst and plays a significant role in the early warning of rock burst in underground engineering.