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聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料的制备及其应用

刘婷 刘源 王晓栋 沈军 张泽 习爽 刘群

刘婷, 刘源, 王晓栋, 沈军, 张泽, 习爽, 刘群. 聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料的制备及其应用[J]. 工程科学学报, 2020, 42(1): 39-47. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2019.08.12.003
引用本文: 刘婷, 刘源, 王晓栋, 沈军, 张泽, 习爽, 刘群. 聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料的制备及其应用[J]. 工程科学学报, 2020, 42(1): 39-47. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2019.08.12.003
LIU Ting, LIU Yuan, WANG Xiao-dong, SHEN Jun, ZHANG Ze, XI Shuang, LIU Qun. Preparation and application of polyimide aerogel materials[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering, 2020, 42(1): 39-47. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2019.08.12.003
Citation: LIU Ting, LIU Yuan, WANG Xiao-dong, SHEN Jun, ZHANG Ze, XI Shuang, LIU Qun. Preparation and application of polyimide aerogel materials[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering, 2020, 42(1): 39-47. doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2019.08.12.003

聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料的制备及其应用

doi: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2019.08.12.003
基金项目: 国家重点研发计划“纳米科技”重点专项资助项目(2017YFA0204600);国家自然科学基金面上资助项目(11874288)
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    通讯作者:

    E-mail: 08conyliu@tongji.edu.cn

  • 中图分类号: TG142.71

Preparation and application of polyimide aerogel materials

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  • 摘要: 聚酰亚胺(polyimide,PI)由于具有较好的力学性能、优异的耐化学性、良好的介电性能和高温稳定性,被认为是一种应用前景广泛的高温工程聚合物。聚酰亚胺的各类制品如薄膜、涂料、胶黏剂、光电材料、先进复合材料、微电子器件、分离膜以及光刻胶等已经被广泛应用于电子信息、防火防弹、航空航天、气液分离以及光电液晶等领域。聚酰亚胺气凝胶(PIA)是由聚合物分子链构成的相互交联的三维多孔材料,结合了聚酰亚胺和气凝胶的优异性能,使其不但具有聚酰亚胺的优异特性,而且具有气凝胶的轻质超低密度、高比表面积、低导热系数以及低介电常数等突出特点,因此聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料迅速发展成为性能优异的有机气凝胶之一,并且在航空航天、电子通讯、隔热阻燃、隔音吸声以及吸附清洁等领域展示出广阔的应用前景。鉴于该材料的这些特质,本文对聚酰亚胺气凝胶的制备方法、影响因素(溶剂效应、单体结构和固含量)以及应用进行了论述,并对聚酰亚胺气凝胶材料的未来发展进行了展望。
  • 图  1  聚酰亚胺气凝胶的合成流程图(a)和化学反应(b)

    Figure  1.  Schematic diagram for the synthesis (a) and chemical reactions (b) of the PI aerogel

    图  2  酸酐与异氰酸酯的反应机制

    Figure  2.  Reaction mechanism of anhydride and isocyanate

    图  3  以酸酐和异氰酸酯为原料一步合成聚酰亚胺气凝胶的化学反应

    Figure  3.  Chemical reactions of PIA synthesized from anhydride and isocyanate in one step

    图  4  降冰片烯封端的二胺经由开环聚合法的聚合过程

    Figure  4.  Polymerization of bis-NAD via ROMP

    图  5  9,9′-二(4-氨基苯基)芴的结构式

    Figure  5.  Constitutional formula of BAPF

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  • 收稿日期:  2019-08-12
  • 刊出日期:  2020-01-01

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