魏徐一, 韩俊伟, 覃文庆. 低浓度稀土离子吸附材料研究进展[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.23.006
引用本文: 魏徐一, 韩俊伟, 覃文庆. 低浓度稀土离子吸附材料研究进展[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.23.006
Research advance of low concentration rare earth ions adsorption materials[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.23.006
Citation: Research advance of low concentration rare earth ions adsorption materials[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.23.006

低浓度稀土离子吸附材料研究进展

Research advance of low concentration rare earth ions adsorption materials

  • 摘要: 近年来,随着稀土需求和产量的不断增加,对稀土资源的高效绿色提取和分离提出了更高的要求。特别是从稀土矿选矿废水、精炼废水、海水和温泉等低浓度的稀土溶液中回收稀土资源已成为研究热点。相比于化学沉淀、溶剂萃取等传统提取技术,吸附法因具有操作简单、成本低廉、处理量大和适应性强等优势,是潜在的低浓度稀土回收方法。本文详细汇总了近年来有关于稀土离子吸附材料的研究进展,介绍了矿物基、碳基、金属-有机框架基和高分子基吸附剂的设计思路、微观形貌(比表面积,孔径和几何形状等)、吸附行为(动力学,等温方程等),材料性能(饱和吸附量,吸附-脱附循环次数等)和潜在的应用潜力(pH,共存竞争离子影响等)。最后,指出了各种吸附材料的优势和不足,提出开发绿色、高效的靶向吸附材料是未来低浓度稀土溶液资源化的主要发展趋势,以其为稀土资源的高效利用提供参考。

     

    Abstract: In recent years, with the constantly increasing demand and production of rare earths, the efficient and green extraction and separation of rare earth resources have put forward higher requirements. In particular, the recovery of rare earth elements (REEs) from low concentration rare earth solutions such as rare earth minerals processing wastewater, refining wastewater, seawater and hot springs has become a research hotspot. Compared with traditional extraction technologies including chemical precipitation and solvent extraction, adsorption is a potential low concentration rare earth recovery method due to its advantages of simple operation, low cost, large treatment capacity and strong adaptability. This paper summarizes in detail the research progress on rare earth ion adsorption materials in recent years, and introduces the design ideas, microscopic morphology (specific surface area, pore size and particle geometric dimension, etc.), adsorption behaviors (adsorption kinetics, adsorption isotherm, etc.), material performances (the maximum adsorption capacity, adsorption-desorption cycles, etc.), and potential application potentials (pH, dosage, coexisting competing ions etc.) of mineral-based, carbon-based, metal-organic framework-based, and polymer-based adsorbents. Mineral-based adsorbent materials are characterized by clay minerals of the layered silicate type, carbon-based adsorbent materials include biochar, graphene, carbon nanotubes, etc., metal-organic frameworks materials include the series of ZIF, UIO, MIL, and HKUST, etc., and polymer-based materials include natural polymers, hydrogels, and artificial polymers. Single material adsorbents usually have the disadvantages of low adsorption capacity, poor selectivity, weak mechanical strength, and unstable under acidic conditions. Preparation of composite materials that fully utilize the advantages of single materials is the main method to overcome the above disadvantages. For example, the use of polymer hydrogels loaded with fine-grained mineral materials to avoid agglomeration, the in-situ growth of metal-organic frameworks on the surface of graphene oxide to enhance its stability under acidic conditions, the use of polymers with specific functional groups containing O, N, and P to modify porous materials to enhance adsorption capacity and the magnetization modification of carbon-based materials and polymers to facilitate the subsequent recycling. Finally, the future development trend of rare earth adsorbents is proposed: 1) development of green adsorbent materials including green raw materials and no new pollution in the using process, 2) development of highly selective adsorbent materials that can extract REEs from competing impurity ions as well as realize the separation of a single rare earth among the REEs, 3) development of high-efficient adsorbent materials including extraction of REEs from low concentration rare earth solutions and fast adsorption kinetics, and their applications in the field of REEs wastewater treatment.

     

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