张益鑫, 李少石, 王兴坚, 王少萍, 朱生华, 杨梦琦. 蝴蝶飞行机理及仿蝴蝶扑翼飞行器研究进展综述[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.11.002
引用本文: 张益鑫, 李少石, 王兴坚, 王少萍, 朱生华, 杨梦琦. 蝴蝶飞行机理及仿蝴蝶扑翼飞行器研究进展综述[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.11.002
ZHANG Yixin, LI Shaoshi, WANG Xingjian, WANG Shaoping, ZHU Shenghua, YANG Mengqi. Research progress on the flight mechanism of butterfly and butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicles[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.11.002
Citation: ZHANG Yixin, LI Shaoshi, WANG Xingjian, WANG Shaoping, ZHU Shenghua, YANG Mengqi. Research progress on the flight mechanism of butterfly and butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicles[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.10.11.002

蝴蝶飞行机理及仿蝴蝶扑翼飞行器研究进展综述

Research progress on the flight mechanism of butterfly and butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicles

  • 摘要: 仿生扑翼飞行器具有高机动性、高隐蔽性以及高效率等突出优势,在军事侦查、探险搜救等领域具有较好的应用前景,而其应用的基础是对生物飞行机理的深入探究. 随着先进运动观测和实验技术的引入,对昆虫飞行行为的记录和分析更为便捷和准确. 研究表明常见的昆虫拍打频率较高,在25~400 Hz之间,而蝴蝶较为特殊,其扑打频率较低,大约为10 Hz,对于蝴蝶的许多独特的飞行技能尚缺少足够的认识. 蝴蝶前翼和后翼的翼面积都较大,身体同侧的前后翼几乎为同步拍打,且扑打幅度较大,甚至接近180°. 蝴蝶飞行中身体有较大幅度的上下和俯仰震荡,翼和身体运动高度耦合. 即便如此,蝴蝶仍具有敏捷的飞行能力,可以达到点对点的飞行目标,甚至上千公里的长途迁徙,是优秀的仿生学研究对象. 因此,蝴蝶启发的仿生扑翼飞行器也得到了全世界研究人员的关注. 蝴蝶的飞行机制相对于其他昆虫更加特殊,飞行行为和气动特性更为复杂,这使得仿蝴蝶扑翼飞行器的研制更加困难. 目前对于仿蝴蝶飞行器的研制大多数对蝴蝶翼–身耦合的机理进行了简化,很少实现受控的稳定飞行. 最后,本文梳理了真实蝴蝶的飞行行为特点和飞行机理,指出了仿蝴蝶扑翼飞行器研制的关键技术,总结了该类飞行器未来的发展方向和应用前景.

     

    Abstract: Bionic flapping-wing air vehicles present notable advantages, including high maneuverability, concealment, and efficiency. They hold promising applications in military reconnaissance and exploration search and rescue, rooted in a comprehensive exploration of biological flight mechanisms. Advanced motion observation and experimental techniques have facilitated more convenient and precise recording and analysis of insect flight behavior. Research indicates that common insects exhibit a high flapping frequency, ranging from 25 to 400 Hz, while butterflies, characterized by a lower flapping frequency of approximately 10 Hz, stand out. Despite the unique attributes of butterfly flight, aerodynamic research remains scarce compared to other flying organisms, resulting in an insufficient understanding of their intricate flying skills. Butterflies, distinguished by large forewings and hindwings that flap nearly synchronously on the same side of the body, spanning a substantial range of up to 180°, display substantial pitch swing during flight, with highly coupled wing and body movements. Remarkably, despite these complexities, butterflies demonstrate agile flight capabilities, enabling them to embark on long-distance migrations spanning thousands of kilometers. This exceptional characteristic renders them exemplary subjects for bionics research, capturing the attention of scholars globally. In contrast to other insects, butterflies have a uniquely intricate flight mechanism, complicating the development of butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicles. Current endeavors in this field often simplify the mechanism of butterfly wing–body coupling, with only a few achieving controlled and stable flight. Simultaneously, the ongoing advancements in microelectromechanical system technology, aerodynamics, and precision processing are insufficient to support the development of practical insect-scale flapping-wing air vehicles fully. Accordingly, researchers have adopted a bionic perspective, observing butterflies’ free flight to understand their flapping-wing flight mechanism via experimental and numerical analysis methods. By the similarity principle of fluid mechanics, adjusting the scale, lowering the flapping frequency, and emulating butterflies’ distinctive flight motion in engineering, a butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicle with a small aspect ratio and ultra-low frequency flapping was conceptualized and fabricated. Although current prototypes can achieve remote-controlled flight, a considerable disparity persists when compared to the flight behavior and capabilities of actual butterflies. Furthermore, most prototypes suffer from subpar battery life due to energy limitations. In comparison to flapping aircraft mimicking birds or larger insects with a high aspect ratio, butterflies have more intricate flapping movement and tailless posture control. Their unique maneuvering flight control, involving coupled and cooperative wing–body movements, demands further comprehensive exploration. Thus, achieving prolonged, controllable, and agile flight in a butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicle poses a considerable challenge. Consequently, this paper synthesizes the distinctive flight behavior and mechanisms observed in living butterflies, elucidating key technologies for developing butterfly-inspired flapping-wing air vehicles. It also delineates the future trajectory for advancing this aircraft category.

     

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