丁子涵, 马丽, 吴俊杰, 石岩, 郝南京. 煤气化渣制备功能微纳材料研究进展[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2024.01.19.001
引用本文: 丁子涵, 马丽, 吴俊杰, 石岩, 郝南京. 煤气化渣制备功能微纳材料研究进展[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2024.01.19.001
DING Zihan, MA Li, WU Junjie, SHI Yan, HAO Nanjing. Research progress on the preparation of functional micro/nano materials from coal gasification slag[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2024.01.19.001
Citation: DING Zihan, MA Li, WU Junjie, SHI Yan, HAO Nanjing. Research progress on the preparation of functional micro/nano materials from coal gasification slag[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2024.01.19.001

煤气化渣制备功能微纳材料研究进展

Research progress on the preparation of functional micro/nano materials from coal gasification slag

  • 摘要: 富煤、贫油、少气的能源结构决定了我国煤炭消费量巨大的现状. 煤气化技术作为煤炭清洁高效利用的关键技术得到快速发展,煤气化渣固废的排放问题也随之日益严重. 目前煤气化渣处置方式以堆放和填埋为主,造成了土地资源的浪费和环境污染. 为了实现煤化工的绿色可持续发展,亟需解决煤气化渣高效处置的问题. 煤气化渣中含有丰富的铝、硅、残碳资源,为制备高附加值材料提供了巨大的潜力,引起了研究者们的广泛关注. 基于煤气化渣的产生过程,详细介绍了其成分与微观形貌,并系统阐述了煤气化渣合成介孔二氧化硅、多孔碳、碳–硅介孔复合材料、沸石以及沸石–碳复合材料的制备方法. 进一步深入探讨了煤气化渣基功能微纳材料在吸附剂、催化剂、填充材料、超级电容器、微波吸收材料等方面的广泛应用. 最后,对煤气化渣资源利用中存在的问题进行了探讨,并展望了其未来的发展趋势,旨在为煤气化渣的综合利用提供一些参考.

     

    Abstract: The energy structure, characterized by abundant coal, limited oil, and gas shortages, contributes to China’s prevalent coal consumption. In the context of carbon peaking and carbon neutrality, coal combustion exacerbates environmental pollution, highlighting the urgent need to promote clean and efficient coal use. As coal gasification technology rapidly advances as a pivotal method for achieving cleaner and more efficient coal use, the challenge of effectively managing coal gasification solid waste becomes increasingly important. The substantial carbon content and complex distribution of carbon and inorganic minerals in coal gasification residue hinder its comprehensive use in building materials and mixed combustion processes. Consequently, the primary disposal methods for coal gasification slag remain stacking and landfilling, which waste land resources and pollute the environment. To realize sustainable and eco-friendly development within the coal chemical industry, addressing the efficient disposal of coal gasification slag is of paramount importance. An abundance of aluminum, silicon, and carbon residue resources endows coal gasification slag with immense potential for the production of high-value-added materials, garnering considerable attention from researchers. The inorganic mineral composition of coal gasification slag is rich in silicon oxide, alumina, and iron oxide components, which can be harnessed for synthesizing zeolite, mesoporous silica, and various micro/nano materials. The carbon residue within coal gasification slag exists in a flocculent porous form, exhibiting a certain degree of graphitization and possessing a large specific surface area, thereby facilitating the production of porous carbon materials. Moreover, a strategy of simultaneous use of carbon and ash can be leveraged to prepare carbon–silicon mesoporous and zeolite–carbon composite materials from coal gasification slag. Looking ahead, based on large-scale coal gasification slag consumption through bulk resource use, the high-value utilization path of coal gasification slag must be further explored to increase the added value of the industry. Building upon the understanding of the production process of coal gasification slag, this paper introduces the composition and micromorphology of coal gasification slag while systematically detailing the preparation methods for synthesizing mesoporous silica, porous carbon, carbon–silicon mesoporous composite materials, zeolite, and zeolite–carbon composite materials. Additionally, the paper delves into the applications of functional micro/nano materials derived from coal gasification slag across various domains, such as adsorbents, catalysts, filling materials, supercapacitors, and microwave-absorbing materials. Finally, the existing problems and future development trends of coal gasification slag resource usage are addressed, aiming to provide guidance for the comprehensive use of coal gasification slag.

     

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