李季声, 王彦斐, 王显宗. P91钢在高流速液态铅铋介质中的冲蚀行为研究[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.11.28.005
引用本文: 李季声, 王彦斐, 王显宗. P91钢在高流速液态铅铋介质中的冲蚀行为研究[J]. 工程科学学报. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.11.28.005
Erosion-corrosion behaviors of P91 steel in high flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.11.28.005
Citation: Erosion-corrosion behaviors of P91 steel in high flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)[J]. Chinese Journal of Engineering. DOI: 10.13374/j.issn2095-9389.2023.11.28.005

P91钢在高流速液态铅铋介质中的冲蚀行为研究

Erosion-corrosion behaviors of P91 steel in high flowing lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE)

  • 摘要: 基于第四代核能系统的发展和需求,铅冷快中子反应堆 (lead-cooled fast reactor, LFR) 是下一步优先发展的6种主要堆型之一。铅冷快堆以液态铅铋共晶合金 (lead-bismuth eutectic, LBE) 作为冷却剂,然而在高温、高流速条件下,LBE与结构材料的冲刷腐蚀磨损严重限制了其的应用。本文以P91钢为研究对象,在相对流速为5 m/s,温度为350 ℃和450 ℃的LBE中进行了长达3000 h的动态测试。研究发现,350 ℃时P91钢表面生成的氧化层为多层结构:从外到内分别为疏松的Fe3O4层、Fe-Cr尖晶石层、内氧化区。经3000 h测试后,基体未遭到LBE侵蚀,合金表面氧化层经历了“剥落—再生成”的动态平衡过程。当介质温度达到450 ℃时,整体氧化腐蚀现象更加严重,但是不同LBE与试样之间冲击迎角区域的腐蚀特征有很大差异。3000 h后因LBE冲击迎角不同造成合金损伤的严重程度排序为:30° > 90° > -90°。30°迎角处氧化层完全剥落,LBE渗透入基体;90°迎角处部分氧化层剥落,基体未遭到LBE侵蚀;-90°迎角处氧化层结构保持完整。本文揭示了P91钢在高流速 (5 m/s) LBE中的冲蚀行为,阐明了合金氧化层的生成和剥落机制,可以为我国第四代核反应堆LFR的材料损失机制和研发提供参考。

     

    Abstract: Based on the development and demand of Generation IV nuclear energy systems, the lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of the six main reactor types to be developed in the next step. And the liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) was used as the coolant in the LFR. However, under the condition of high temperature and high flow rate, erosion corrosion wear between LBE and structural materials severely limits its application. In this study, P91 steel was exposed to high flowing LBE (5 m/s) for up to 3000 h at 350 ℃ and 450 ℃, respectively. It was found that the oxide layer formed on the surface of P91 steel at 350 °C is a multi-layer structure: loose Fe3O4 layer, Fe-Cr spinel layer and inner oxidation zone from outside to inside. After 3000 h, the substrate was not eroded by LBE, and the oxide scale experienced a dynamic equilibrium process of "spalling - regeneration". When the temperature reaches 450 °C, the overall oxidative corrosion phenomenon is more serious. The characteristics of the different LBE incident angles are discrepancy. After 3000 h, the severity of damage caused by LBE incident angle is as follows: 30° > 90° > -90°. At 30°, the oxide layer completely spall off and LBE penetrated into the substrate. At 90°, the oxide layer was partially peeled off, but the matrix was not eroded by LBE. At -90°, the oxide layer remained intact. This study reveals the erosion-corrosion behaviors of P91 steel in high flowing (5 m/s) LBE, and elucidates the formation and spalling mechanism of the oxide layer, which can provide reference for the material loss mechanism and research and development of LFR of the Generation IV nuclear energy systems.

     

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