In order to understand the thermal damage evolution mechanism in rock under thermomechanical coupling and make reasonable evaluation on the safety and stability of underground rock engineering such as ultra-deep well drilling, deep ground laboratory, nuclear waste disposal, geothermal resource development and other underground rock engineering, this paper systematically reviewed the research progress and development of deformation and failure of high temperature rock mass and temperature-varying rock mass under thermal coupling effect by analyzing and sorting out domestic and foreign literature achievements. The physical and mechanical properties of rock after high temperature and real-time high temperature rock were briefly described. The evolution law of rock physical and mechanical parameters with temperature under thermomechanical coupling was summarized. The latest research progress of deformation and failure mechanism under thermomechanical coupling was mainly analyzed, and the applications of advanced auxiliary test technologies such as acoustic emission ( AE ), ultrasonic testing ( UT ), diffraction of x-rays ( XRD ), polarizing microscope ( PM ), scanning electron microscope ( SEM), nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ), and computed tomography (CT) scanning system in deformation and failure analysis were introduced. The advantages and disadvantages of the coupled thermal-stress model of rock, the numerical analysis method, and the applicable conditions were summarized．The variation characteristics of rock mechanical parameters under thermomechanical coupling are briefly described. Finally, limitations in the current studies of thermal damage in deep rock under thermomechanical coupling were pointed out. The future development trend was discussed from several aspects, that is to explore the mechanism of rock thermal damage in multi-scale and multi-field-phase, and the evolution law of rock thermal damage was systematically analyzed from macro, meso and micro aspects.