Solid waste backfill technology in metal mines has a history of more than half a century in China. It has been essential for comprehensive excavation and utilization of mineral resources, environmental protection, and engineering safety. In this paper, recent development and reformation progress of backfill mining technology is reviewed. It is concluded that the design philosophy and technical route of modern backfill technology takes comprehensive realization of solid waste utilization, environment conservation, mined-out area disposal, resource recovery, and ground pressure control as the aims, with the requirements of optimal backfill method, sufficient mechanical strength, and pumpable backfill slurry, by use of information technology, automatic technology, and equipment technology. New backfill concepts are introduced such as collaborative backfill of paste and multi-material, synchronous backfill, and functional backfill. The framework of backfill mechanics is described which mainly relies on the rheology and solid mechanics. Specifically, we analyze rheological properties, models, and effective tests of backfill slurry, as well as the matching relationship between backfill strength and mining methods and functions of filling body in stope mechanics, excavation structure, and flexible pressure relief. According to the characteristics of in-situ stope, the influence of in-situ multi-field factors is analyzed, with introduction of the latest multi-field coupling monitoring system. More details about the develop trend and research status of critical processes in backfill including deep thickening, mixing, and long-distance pipe transport are updated. In view of the advantages of intelligent backfill and performance of relevant intelligent algorithms in the backfill field, we propose a picture for future development of intelligent backfill. In terms of future trend of solid waste backfill, we suggest that it could further enrich the meaning of green mining, explore the realization of modular, scale and intelligent backfill, and actively consider and serve the needs of deep mining. The backfill method is promising to be the optimal choice for deep mining and green mining.