Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants, plasticizers, stabilizers, and antifoaming agents in various building materials, including plastics, foam, coatings, textiles and furniture, and interior decoration materials. Most OPEs are physically mixed rather than chemical bonding into the productions, making these chemicals easily released into the indoor environment. Previous studies have shown that OPEs were frequently found in indoor environment with elevated concentrations. Long-term exposure to high concentrations of OPEs in indoor environment may result in certain health risks. However, limited information is available on the distribution characteristics and risk assessment of OPEs in the building environment. In the present work, the properties, applications and biological toxicity of common OPEs were summarized, and environmental behavior, pollution characteristics and exposure level of OPEs in building environment were reviewed. Building materials and household products are important sources of OPEs in the indoor environment, and the levels of OPEs in these productions are significantly associated with the concentration of OPEs in indoor air and dust. Generally, indoor air and dust acted as two major sinks of OPEs in the building environment: more volatile OPEs, such as TCIPP, TCEP and TnBP, were found predominantly in the indoor air, while less volatile OPEs, such as TDCIPP and TPhP, were often detected in the dust due to their low vapor pressure and high affinity for particle. In general, humans can be exposed to OPEs in the building environment through three main exposure pathways: inhalation, dermal absorption, and ingestion. This study showed that dust ingestion was the dominant pathway of human exposure to OPEs, while dermal absorption and inhalation were minor contributors to the total daily exposures. In addition, relative mass transfer model and release characteristics of OPEs in building environment were also introduced in this paper. Based on the characteristics of OPEs in building environment, the controlling techniques, such as microporous control technology, barrier control technology, compound purification technology and the alternative strategy of OPEs are introduced, and the future research direction was prospected.