Aiming at the practical needs and significance of reducing gangue emission and controlling surface subsidence caused by high-intensity mining in fragile environmental areas in western China, we proposed a short-wall continuous mining and continuous backilling (CMCB) cemented-fill mining technology. On the basis of studying the mining principle of short-wall CMCB cemented-fill mining technology, the layout of the working face and the mining and filling crafts of this technology are introduced. In terms of filling materials, the mineral composition and microscopic characteristics of various filling materials were analyzed, and the strength and flow characteristics of the cemented filling materials under different proportions were tested. The composition and overall design ideas of the filling system of this technology are put forward, including four parts: slurry preparation system, pipeline transportation system, monitoring system, and working face filling system. On-site test showed that the short-wall CMCB cemented-filling mining technology achieves a compression ratio of more than 98% in a 5 m thick near-level coal seam, the maximum roof subsidence is 102 mm, and the maximum surface subsidence is 8.9 mm. 245,000 tons of gangue were used, and the application effect was good.