Aiming at the problem of ensuring the stability of the overlying roadway in the short-distance and 1000 m deep coal seam, this paper studied the deformation and failure mechanism, failure types and prevention methods of the overlying roadway in the mining of the lower coal seam through theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. Based on the study of mining conditions and the overburden space structure formed by mining, the deformation and failure law of roadway in strike and dip direction is obtained. At the same time, the stress evolution law of roadway deformation and failure is obtained by studying the influence of different mining stages and different filling rates of the lower face on the mining of the overlying roadway. The results show that the fundamental reasons for the deformation and failure of the overlying roadway are the large buried depth, the strong mining stress, the influence of the coal seam being close to the roadway and the unequal distance, and the direct reason is the sudden increase of the stress of the roadway floor and the two sides and the subsidence of the roof. There are two main types of roadway failure, one is roadway section reduction failure, the other is roadway strike step subsidence failure. In the process of mining, when the mining range of the working face is 0~130m or more than 400m, the roadway section reduction failure and strike ladder subsidence failure will superimpose each other, which will induce greater roadway failure. For this reason, a scheme of partial filling and strengthening of the roadway along the working face is designed. Through field measurement, it is found that the above scheme can meet the requirements of the stability of the overlying roadway and the high efficiency and high yield of the underlying working face. The research results can provide some references for the safe mining of coal in1000m deep coal seam.