Reducing the amount of bentonite is one of the effective ways to improve pellet grade, save energy and reduce emissions. Based on the new high-efficiency composite binder, the influence of the composite binder on the quality of the green pellets and the structure-activity relationship with important indicators are studied by means of green pellet preparation, linear fitting analysis, and green pellet mechanical characteristic analysis. The mechanism of the composite binder to improve the quality of the green pellets. The result of the green pellet quality test showed that the composite binder pellets with a ratio of 1.2% bentonite + 0.028% organic binder had a drop strength of 6.2 times·(0.5m)-1 and a compressive strength of 14.5 N·P-1.The burst temperature reaches 542℃.Compared with 2.0% bentonite pellets, the green pellet quality is similar, and the bentonite consumption is reduced by 40%.The results of the structure-activity relationship study show that the organic binder has a significant effect on the drop strength and burst temperature of the green pellets, and the bentonite has a greater influence on the dry pellet strength; the research on the mechanism of the composite binder improving the quality of the green pellets shows that the organic binder strengthens the drop strength of the green pellets by enhancing the hydrophilicity, capillary force and viscosity of the particles. When drying, a small amount of pores are formed in the surface layer, which is beneficial to the drainage of water in the pellets and increases the burst temperature of the green pellets.