Shallow resources are exhausted, mining has turned to deep mining, and the mining depth of most mines under construction is more than 1000 meters. With the continuous increase of mineral resources mining depth, the thickness and strength grade of shaft lining concrete increases, resulting in higher hydration heat. Freezing method is usually used in deep well construction, which leads to the high temperature on one side and low temperature on the other side of the shaft wall concrete, which seriously affects the performance of concrete. It is of great theoretical significance for deep well construction and service safety to find out the change law of shaft wall concrete performance under freezing construction environment. The temperature difference between -5/60 ℃ and -5/70 ℃ is applied to simulate the state of mass concrete in freezing method construction environment. The ultrasonic parameters, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, chloride diffusion coefficient and bursting liability of concrete under simulated environment are experimented, and the SEM micro morphology of concrete is analyzed. The results show that the freezing construction environment will cause certain damage to the interior of concrete, and the damage parallel to the heating direction is greater than the vertical direction. The damage of C50 concrete is greater than that of C70 concrete, and the temperature gradient will aggravate the internal damage of concrete. The simulated freezing environment will have adverse effects on the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, chloride ion permeability and bursting liability of concrete. The temperature difference has a positive correlation with the performance reduction rate, and this effect is more significant for low strength concrete. The internal microstructure of concrete block is uneven due to the simulated freezing environment, the concrete structure at the low temperature end is loose, and the structure at the high temperature end is dense, which leads to the decrease of concrete performance.