With the rapid development of science and technology, microscale electronic devices present more and more promising application capabilities in diverse fields such as information, aeronautics and astronautics, energy, and chemical engineering. For high integration and high frequency devices, the outstanding performance also brings significant heat flux. Conventional air cooling and liquid cooling techniques are hard to meet the efficient heat dissipation requirement, which greatly affects the reliability and safety of microscale electronic devices. In recent years, researchers proposed many kinds of passive heat transfer process intensification strategies, such as those based on the adjustment of element structure, surface roughness, surface hydrophobicity, and channel dimension. However, these passive strategies always increase the flow resistance to some extent, thereby limiting their application potential. Ultrasound displays several unique features in terms of low cost, simple operation, flexible control, strong penetrability, and good biocompatibility. The integration of ultrasound with heat transfer techniques has attracted considerable attention from researchers. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of the research progress on the ultrasound-excited heat transfer process intensification. Firstly, the ultrasound-excited heat transfer principles are introduced. Then, the theoretical and experimental studies on ultrasound-excited single-phase gas convection, single-phase liquid convection, pool boiling, and flow boiling heat transfer process intensification are summarized. Finally, the current challenges and future directions are discussed for providing potential guidelines to develop robust ultrasound heat transfer platforms.