Lithium ion batteries have been limited in their application for large-scale energy storage due to the limited reserves and uneven distribution of lithium resources and certain safety problems. Aqueous zinc batteries (ZIBs) have attracted much attention owing to their rich resources, safety, environmental protection and low price. However, the strong electrostatic interaction between Zn2+ and the material matrix results in sluggish reaction kinetics and some cathode materials are dissolved in aqueous electrolytes, which restrict the development of ZIBs. Recent studies have found that vanadium phosphate possesses the characteristics of stable structure, high voltage platform, high energy density, and high power density. This paper summarizes the application of various vanadium phosphates and their derivatives in ZIBs, introduces their reaction mechanisms and existing problems, and proposes some solutions. Finally, the prospects for its future development are put forward.