The cemented paste backfill (CPB) is a safe, green and efficient technical means to reduce cost and meet the requirements of solid waste treatment, and it has become a current research hotspot. However, due to the multi-scale and high concentration of the CPB, its rheological behavior is very complex, and the existing rheological model is difficult to describe the rheological behavior of paste under the shearing. It is concluded that the interaction between tailing particles and between tailing sand particles and water, resulting in the variation of the overall friction coefficient of the paste with shear rate, is the root cause of the complex rheological behavior exhibited by the CPB. By analyzing the limitations of traditional paste rheological model, the domestic and international literature are reviewed based on the surface properties of particles and interaction between particles and water. The reasons for the formation of the hydrogen bond network structure on the surface of tailings particles and their influencing factors are analyzed. The origin and variation of the microscopic friction force between particles under shearing influenced by the hydrogen bond network structure is described. The internal mechanism of rheological behaviors including shear banding, shear thinning and shear thickening in the shearing process is analyzed, and the friction dissipation law of paste rheological behavior with the change of shear rate is summarized. It is proposed that the accurate measurement of macroscopic friction is the key to analyze its rheological behavior in the paste system, and clarification of fine mechanics mechanism of the complex rheological behavior promotes the development of metal ore paste rheology from macroscopic rheology to mesoscopic causation.